Equivalents

  • 1 Tablespoon (Tbsp) = 3 teaspoons (tsp)
  • 1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
  • 1/3 cup = 5 tablespoons
  • 1/2 cup = 8 tablespoons
  • 1 cup = 16 tablespoons
  • 8 fluid ounces (fl oz) = 1 cup
  • 1 pint (pt) = 2 cups
  • 1 quart (qt) = 2 pints or 4 cups or 32 ounces
  • 1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts
  • 16 ounces (oz) = 1 pound (lb)

Temperature

  • 275°F = 140°C
  • 300°F = 150°C
  • 350°F = 180°C
  • 400°F = 200°C
  • 425°F = 220°C
  • 450°F = 230°C
  • 500°F = 260°C
USDA INTERNAL TEMP GUIDELINES
  • Ground Meat = 160°F (Ground lamb is 170°F)
  • Poultry = 165°F
  • Pork and Beef = 160°F for medium
  • Here’s a fantastic guide with oven temps + roasting time for meat and poultry.

Baking Subs

  • 1 cup buttermilk | 1 cup plain yogurt or mix 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar with enough milk to fill 1 cup. Set aside 5 minutes
  • 1 cup butter | 7/8 cup vegetable oil, 3/4 cup olive oil, or equal measure of shortening or margarine
  • 1/2 teaspoon baking soda | 2 teaspoons baking powder
  • Sugar | equal measure of coconut sugar or brown sugar
  • 1 egg | 1/4 cup unsweetened applesauce or mashed banana or 1/4 cup silken tofu or 1/4 cup vegetable oil. Alternately, mix 1 tablespoon chia seeds with 3 tablespoons water. Set aside 10 minutes.
  • 1 cup honey | 1 1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water or milk (or whatever liquid is in recipe)
  • 1 cup heavy cream | 3/4 cup whole milk with 1/4 cup butter.
  • Creme fraiche | equal measure of sour cream
  • Raisins | equal measure of chopped dried dates, currants, dried cranberries, or chopped dried apricots
  • Vegetable oil | equal measure unsweetened applesauce
  • 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate | 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon butter (unsalted)
  • Peanut butter | equal measure tahini or other nut butter
  • 1 cup whole milk | 1 cup skim milk plus 2 tablespoons melted butter (unsalted)
  • 1 tablespoon cornstarch | 2 tablespoons flour or 1 tablespoon potato or rice starch
  • King Arthur’s Flour created a beautiful guide to baking with different flours
BUTTER
  • 1/4 cup butter = 4 tablespoons or 2 ounces
  • 1/2 cup butter = 8 tablespoons or 1/4 pound or 1 stick
  • 1 cup = 16 tablespoons or 1/2 pound

Cooking Subs

  • Anchovy paste | fish sauce (sparingly)
  • Fish sauce | anchovy paste or soy sauce
  • Breadcrumbs | equal measure of crushed crackers or ground oats
  • Coconut milk | equal measure whole milk
  • Cornmeal | equal measure of polenta (dry) or corn grits
  • Wine | equal measure of broth, stock, or water. Add bay leaf or 1 tablespoon soy sauce to water for more flavor
  • Ghee | equal measure of butter or vegetable oil
  • Green onion | equal measure of chopped white onion, shallot, or leek
  • Lemon juice | equal measure of vinegar
  • Mayonnaise | equal measure of plain yogurt or sour cream, or in some cases mashed avocado
  • Parmesan | equal measure of Pecorino Romano or Asiago cheeses
  • Sour cream | equal measure of plain yogurt
  • 1 small onion | 1 teaspoon onion powder
  • 1 cup canned tomato | 1 1/3 cup diced fresh tomatoes, simmered for 8-10 minutes
  • Balsamic vinegar | equal measure of sherry or cider vinegar
SPICES
  • Allspice | cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg
  • Basil | oregano, thyme
  • Cardamom | ground ginger
  • Chili powder | cumin, Aleppo pepper, cayenne, hot sauce
  • Cilantro | parsley
  • Cumin | chili powder
  • Curry powder | turmeric, ground ginger, black pepper with paprika and cumin
  • Ginger | allspice, nutmeg
  • Italian seasoning | blend of basil, oregano, rosemary, and red pepper
  • Mint | basil, marjoram, rosemary
  • Pumpkin pie spice | 2 parts ground cinnamon mixed with 1 part ground ginger and 1/2 part each of ground allspice and ground nutmeg
  • Rosemary | thyme, tarragon
  • Sage | marjoram, basil, oregano